First and foremost I’d like to start by saying Ramadan Kareem to one and all of you. Hope you all have a successful and pious Ramadan. It is the time of the year when food is prepared with much exuberance and love and eaten with equal gusto. People prepare dishes that are passed down since generations. Missing out on even a single ingredient in such a dish can make a difference. One such ingredient is kesar (saffron). Saffron finds use in several Ramadan recipes be it sweet or savoury. You may think what difference a little pinch of saffron may make to your dish but don’t underestimate this beautiful ingredient. The smell, colour and flavour it adds to your dish are the kind that you are sure to miss when it’s not added to your dish.

Since time immemorial saffron has occupied a special place in the culture and tradition of people. This exotic herb is famous for its medicinal, coloring and flavoring properties. Valued all over the world, especially by culinary and medical experts, saffron has a number of uses. This exotic herb finds mention in several ancient texts. It is mentioned in classical western writings and also in the Bible. It is specially mentioned in Bhavprakash Nighantu, an Ayurvedic text. The Arabs, who introduced the cultivation of the plant into Spain as an article of commerce, bequeathed to us its modern title of Zaffer or saffron, but the Greeks and Romans called it Krokos and Karokam respectively.

Saffron is a native of Southern Europe. The La Macha belt of Spain is the largest producer of saffron in the world and contributes 80-90% of the world saffron production. Being there during the saffron harvest season is a treat to all the senses. In India the cultivation of saffron is confined to Pampore and Kistwar areas of Jammu and Kashmir, extending to nearly 4000 acres. Kashmiri saffron is valued all over the world for its fine quality and a large part of the saffron produced in Kashmir is exported. Saffron is one of the world’s oldest and expensive spices and it is so for a reason. An estimated one pound of saffron consists of about 225,000 to 500,000 dried stigmas and requires the picking by hand of 75,000 flowers. That gives an idea of the human labor involved in harvesting saffron and hence the precious nature of the spice.

Saffron is very popular as a spice in all international cuisines. It is an indispensable ingredient in most Mughlai dishes and erstwhile Mughlai chefs used this herb liberally in the rich concoctions they prepared for the royal table. Saffron gives a beautiful tinge and a special aroma to a dish. It is used in sweets as well as in curries. In India, to serve dishes decorated with saffron is regarded as a mark of honor to the guest and has become the norm rather than the exception. On account of its coloring and aromatic properties, saffron is used mostly as a food additive in culinary, bakery and confectionery preparation. It is used in several exotic dishes, particularly in Spanish rice specialties and French fish preparations. It is also used for coloring butter, cheese, pudding and pastry. People in Europe and India use it to season various foods be it sweet or savory.

Saffron finds many uses in Ayurveda, Unani, Chinese and Tibetan medicine. It is popularly known as a stimulant, warm and dry in action, helping in urinary, digestive and uterine troubles. In Ayurveda, saffron is used to cure chronic diseases such as asthma and arthritis. It is also useful in treating cold and cough. Ayurvedic medicines containing saffron are used to treat acne and several skin diseases. A paste of the spice can be used as a dressing for bruises and superficial sores. Ancient texts on Ayurveda have information about the herb’s use as an aphrodisiac. It is largely used as an indigenous medicine across India. Saffron enjoys great reputation as a drug which strengthens the functioning of the stomach and promotes its action. It is beneficial in the treatment of several digestive disorders. It is used in medicines that reduce inflammation. A combination of saffron and ghee is used to treat diabetes. Saffron also merits usage as a strengthening agent for the heart and as a cooling agent for the brain. It has been found beneficial in the treatment of urinary problems. Traditionally saffron is believed to promote fairness of the complexion. The advertisements for fairness creams on television never fail to mention kesar as one of its components. It is an age-old belief that pregnant women give birth to ‘fair’ babies, if they consume saffron.  However, saffron may induce abortion; hence pregnant women should not take it in large doses.

Since saffron is very expensive, unscrupulous dealers often adulterate it. So one has to be very careful while buying saffron and should never buy it from roadside hawkers. In order to understand commercial saffron, it is important to know the make-up of the saffron plant. Commercial saffron comes from the bright red stigmas of the Crocus Sativus. The stigmas are the female part of the flower. In a good year each saffron crocus plant might produce several flowers. Each flower contains three stigmas which are only part of the saffron crocus that when dried (cured) properly, become commercial saffron. Each red stigma is like a little capsule that encloses the complex chemicals that make up the saffron’s aroma, flavor and yellow dye. In order to release these chemicals the threads are to be steeped. Though powdered saffron is more efficient, there is increased scope for adulteration. Sometimes the male parts of the saffron flower (the stamens) are added to increase weight. Sometimes ground yellow stamens are sold as powdered saffron. Legitimate powdered saffron is red-orange and is made by grinding saffron stigmas.

Since over-use of saffron in cooking may lead to a bitter taste, one has to be careful. According to experts, for every tablespoon of saffron that you need to use, add three tablespoons of water. Use a spoon and make sure that the saffron threads get properly soaked; take care not to crush the threads. Then add the mixture to a glass containing about 30-50 ml of lukewarm water and mix thoroughly. Leave the saffron in the glass for a minimum of 2 hours. Prepare your recipe as usual and add the contents of the glass along with the saffron threads when required.

Saffron is rightly called the magical herb. It has varied uses ranging from culinary to medicinal and beauty and has been highly valued by man since ancient times. Tell me how you make use of this precious spice. I’m sure you all agree that a tiny pinch of saffron is all you need to make that big difference in your dish.

Try out these recipes that are made magical with kesar…

Murgh Zafrani do Pyaza


Kesari Indrayani

Kaju Pista Badam Kesar Burfi

Till I write again.

Sanjeev Kapoor


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